Image courtesy of hdptcar, © 2007, some rights reserved.
Image courtesy of hdptcar, © 2007, some rights reserved.

The Central African Republic (CAR) is mineral rich, yet historically a chronically unstable state. Its unique geostrategic position, landlocked and surrounded by the failed states of Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan, makes for a profound potentiality to affect the dynamics of African politics. More often than not, however, the Central African Republic has been an unfortunate victim of its geography, exploited and beholden to its neighbours and former colonial powers: a principal determinant defining its long and sobering fifty-three year ‘post-colonial’ history. Such states as France, Libya and Chad have historically allied themselves with various political parties or rebel factions in the CAR in pursuit of their own national interests, further exacerbating ethnic fragmentation and conflict originally resulting from the imposition and institutionalisation of arbitrary colonial boundaries by European leaders at the 1885 Berlin Conference. Accordingly, the Central African Republic’s “Bush War” and the overwhelming of the capital city of Bangui that subsequently led to the ascension of rebel leader Michel Djotodia to the office of president last month with de facto authoritarian power represents only the most recent, albeit perhaps the most pertinent, chapter of its history.

Although the CAR has been a natural target for extremists (owing to its large mineral deposits) and has experienced nearly constant political instability rivaled only by a handful of failed states, it has received very little media attention in the West. In fact, with the exception of Mali, regional media coverage and public interest in the ongoing political revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have seemingly overshadowed any and all events that have transpired in Sub-Saharan Africa. While understandable, the fact still remains: the very same underlying socio-economic factors that facilitated the ‘Arab Spring’- corruption, unemployment, etc.- are in many cases far worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the case of the CAR’s Bush War, which originally began with a rebellion by the Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR) after François Bozize seized power from the democratically elected president in 2003, conflict has been waged intermittently for the better part of a decade. In early 2004, however, the self-entitled rebel coalition “Séléka”, who currently hold political control of the country and is comprised of fighters from far-flung northeastern areas of the CAR, Chad and Sudan, undertook a campaign of guerrilla warfare. This is important if only for the fact that, as in the case of the Tuareg rebels in Mali whose importance to the civil war cannot be overstated, this region of the CAR is isolated, historically marginalised (people from southern CAR frequently refer to all north-easterners as “foreigners”) and lacks governance resulting in permeable borders and widespread trafficking of arms. Significantly, rebel leader Michel Djotodia and soon to be president also hails from this remote and largely Muslim region; in short, Djotodia’s cultural background and time spend living in Chad were instrumental in uniting the rebel factions under the single heading of Séléka.

Despite Djotodia’s promise to hold elections in a year, official reactions to Bozize’s official overthrow on the 24 March 2013, have been quick and of a critical nature. The UN emphasised that rebel factions responsible for the deaths of South African soldiers, the only state to respond to requests of military intervention aid (admittedly in defense of South African mining interests), and “those responsible for violations and abuses of international humanitarian and human rights law, including violence against civilians, sexual and gender-based violence and recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, must be held accountable”.[1] Moreover, the African Union and the UN jointly condemned the regime change as illegitimate and were quick to insist that an interim executive should be formulated with the purpose of electing a temporary president of the CAR. Although the international community is, and indeed should be, skeptical of Séléka’s aforementioned grandiose promise and supposed commitment to democratic elections, the recent international action, while undoubtedly well intentioned, has often lacked in results. The most recent talks in Libreville this year between rebels and the former CAR government lasted all of three days, compared to months in the past. When one takes into consideration the internal factions of the rebel coalition, it is childish, indeed almost comical, to assume there was adequate time for proper dialogue and critical self-reflection. Furthermore, the dialogues were ridden with a lack of trust, indicative of the fact that the level of long-term commitment will in all likelihood be marginal, thereby precipitating a return to the unsustainable status quo. The international community, regional and global IGOs alike, must learn that such short-term fixes disguised as peacebuilding and initiative of mediated conflict resolution are often built on inaccurate assumptions.

With regard to the topic of human security, since mid-2006, the CAR has neither been governed nor governable. At the request of Séléka, the French army and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) coalition force, ‘MICOPAX’, have recently began patrolling the streets of the capital city of Bangui. The lawlessness and lack of accountability pervasive in the CAR combined with a decade of civil war has unsurprisingly caused an alarmingly large humanitarian crisis. According to Human Rights Watch, hundreds of civilians were killed, more than 10,000 houses burned and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes to live deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic.[2] Moreover, increasingly large numbers of unpublicised refugees have made their way across the border into countries such countries as the Democratic Republic of Congo, all of which face longstanding accusations of egregious human rights violations. This had led to a drastic loss in humanitarian access. These desolate and desperate conditions, by no means confined to the CAR, often pervasive among its neighbouring states across Sub-Saharan Africa, provide at least one possible explanation as to why the Arab Spring has not been followed by an African Spring. To be brief: first, a legacy of failed states has undoubtedly shaped perceptions about political reform. Second, profound ethnic, linguistic and religious divisions exist in sub-Saharan Africa, which tend to be stronger than any sense of national unity. This is in stark contrast to Tunisia, Egypt and Libya where the vast majorities of citizens practiced Sunni Islam and were united by the common language of Arabic. Finally, the Arab Spring was heavily reliant on social media and the Internet, resultants of the process of urbanisation that sub-Saharan Africa has yet to undergo.



[1] http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/03/looking-for-answers-after-car-coup-detat/

[2] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-22041609

3 thoughts on “A Coup de CAR, and Why an African Spring Hasn’t Come”

  1. SOURCE: CENTRAL AFRICA PRESSES INFORMATION (C.P.I) http://www.lalettredusud.fr the 12/23/11 by Jacques-Marie Le Bourget
    Details of the article: Lu for you: Areva, the uranium of Bangui and France with money. Published it: 13 DEC 2013 Lu: 2305 times Commented on: 2 times
    Thus, if it is necessary to believe Canard Enchainé of them, Anne Lauvergeon whereas she was still with the head of Areva, would have been victim of wild phone-tappings… According to the investigation of the Letter of the South, the business is not so simple. It is in any case strange since the contents of known as listenings would be completely pain-killer.

    The episode of this spy novel would be at the summer 2007 when Areva invested billion in uranium mines in Africa, Namibia or Central Africa. Obviously the supply nuclear fuel then had price, nothing was not too beautiful for this so rich ground of Africa. After Fukushima these blessed times erased.

    Seen of Bangui the plutonium dreams gilded take funny turning today. Having finally the feeling to be cocufié by Anne Lauvergeon and her friends, the Bozize general, Head of the State shouts now “with the robbers”. That by the inextinguishable voice of its Jacques Vergès lawyer.
    More serious the general himself car proclaimed president by a coup d’etat which drove out very corrupted Patassé feels the carpet of the capacity to slip to him under the feet. Its scenario: to save the interests threatened well of Aréva in Central Africa, France of Nicolas Sarkozy would be quite able to launch against him a form of putsch. To make it relieve to put at its place a true friend. Like Josué Binoua, the Minister for the Administration which precisely has just made a long stay in France…

    It is into 1959 that the layer of Me Patou, close to Bakouma is updated. In 1969 the Central African State and the French Company of the Uranium Ores (CFMU), found a common company, URBA. In 1973 it is the company Swiss Société Aluminum which takes again the pickaxe after first not very conclusive tests. This time the helvéto-Central African duet is confined of a baptized firm URCA. In 1978, everyone is ready to pick if a financing is done day… But the dream collapses with the world rate of uranium.

    Fifteen years later the nuclear eldorado remakes surface. February 26th, 2006 is signed in Bangui a convention moreover, this time between the State and Uramin BECAUSE Limited a company of right of the British Virgin Islands. Article 2.1.1 lays down the constitution of a company of Central African right which “will have the aim of holding the license of exploitation and to lead the mining operations”. It is well specified that it is this new toolbox which will make the request for license of exploitation and which the latter will have a 25 years validity.

    Except that the cheating ones of Uramin BECAUSE Limited, by a subterfuge which remains to be updated (corruption of a civil servant?), Uramin thus, obtains the license to pick in its proper name and not in that of the fraternal company which must be born from the coupling between Central Africa and the Virgin Islands. The O6/149 decree of May 2nd, 2006 is well allotted to only Uramin. Decree how the Bozize general did not see passing!

    In August 2007 occurs the tender offer of Areva on Uramin. Such an amount of worse for Areva if the license to exploit is at the very least fragile if ever Bozize decides acter in justice…

    Uramin BECAUSE Limited becomes, under the oiling of Areva, the company Uramin Central Africa SA. An endorsement comes to regulate the bearing misunderstanding on the famous license to exploit. August 1st, 2008, under the load of Patrick Balkany (cf Canard Enchainé), Bozize agrees to give to Areva the rights initially granted to Uramin. Article 3.2 of the new agreement prescribes that “the transfer of the title of Uramin to Areva will be done under the conditions envisaged by the texts in force in Central African Republic”.

    February 26th, 2010 a meeting, around the Central African persons in charge, of Enrico Barbaglia vice-president of Areva and Daniel Wouters vice-president “South Africa Resources” and vice-president “Development Business” at Areva always, a meeting thus which puts everyone of agreement to ratify the mining convention of February 28th, 2006, that, signed between Bangui and Uramin.
    A box which makes any only at its head. Whereas these minors come from the Virgin Islands were simply to transfer allowed them to exploit “obtained by the trick” with Areva Ressources Central Africa, here that by the means of Master Doraz Serefessenet, notary with Bangui, Uramin “does not transfer” not the sacrosaint allowed, but makes “transfer of it”. What wants to say that Areva should for that open its purse? Not, at least officially since this license would have been, finally, to yield on a purely free basis… Except that convention provides that “the transfer is exonerated from very fee registration and of stamp and does not give the most been worth place to an imposition of”.
    Here are which is not nice for so bloodless Trésor of Central Africa. Local lawyers, then write “Extremely this rocambolesque transfer, a recording on a purely free basis was carried out by the service of the land Conservation on August 31st, 2010, defrauds some with the rights of the State”.

    Definitely, Bozize seems to be unaware of what its civils servant do!

    If the exploitation of the site of Bakouma is possible, it will be expensive even if the ore has a very rich uranium concentration. And will patatras, Fukushima passed by there and the nuclear power is not worth large any more thing.
    For Central Africa, remain the tears, but general-president Bozize does not intend to let himself make. Its lawyers asked to meet those of Areva. To imagine the continuation.

    If another actor of this expensive and mysterious business, man of foreground in the panoply of Françafrique, is today in the embarrassment, it is well Georges A. Forrest. Néo-zélando-belgo and potentate of the Republic of Congo… An enemy of the militants altermondialists who show this emperor of all the ores “to suck the blood of African”. Friendly large Forest of Balkany, contresigned the agreement between Central Africa, Areva and Uramin, as “a facilitator”. The same trade as Takieddine, hero of the file of the submarines of Karachi…

    Source: http://www.lalettredusud.fr/economique/general/23/12/2011/areva-l-uranium-de-bangui-et-la-france-a-fric

  2. Central African Republic: Corruption, despotism, misery and civil wars

    Awaked By: Ali EL HADJ TAHAR | liberte-algerie.com

    The day before the independence of the Central African Republic (RCA), Abel Goumba, then president of the Council and Prime Minister, are drawn aside by David Dacko in 1960.
    Not laying out of sufficient number “advisers” to continue to exert its power with Bangui, Paris thus catapulted David Dacko, but the bringing together of this last with the Chinese will push the Elysium to replace it by his/her cousin Jean Bedel Bokassa at the conclusion of a putsch, in 1966.

    More despotic and corrupted that its predecessor, Bokassa will be very courted by Paris. Valery Giscard d’Estaing will make shooting parties with him, in Central Africa, and will benefit even from her diamond-like generosities after having blessed crowning, on December 4th, 1976, which made of him an emperor.

    Three years later, in September 1979, Paris organizes “the Barracuda operation” which relieves the friend Bokassa with the profit, once again, of David Dacko.
    While the emperor was in visit in Tripoli, in Kadhafi, the large arm of the ex-SDCE convoient David Dacko in Transall of the French Army, right on Bangui. Indeed, the bringings together of the emperor with the Libyan Guide, the French enemy number one of the time, started to worry Paris.

    Paris will thus give again service in depressive David Dacko who will be relieved by the Kolingba General, in 1981, with the blessing of the Elysium.
    Twelve years during, it will reinforce the military dictatorship while controlling under the narrow control of the French colonel, Jean-Claude Mantion, considered as a true proconsul of president Mitterrand.

    This agent of the French secret services, become chief of presidential safety, was in fact “the true Master of the country”: it made the law there, as at the good old day of Jacques Foccart, the very powerful adviser of De Gaulle to the African businesses.

    In 1993, in the wave of democratization cold post-War, Paris will oblige the Kolingba General to organize pluralist elections, at the conclusion which the presidential armchair returned to Angel-Felix Patassé.
    Paris will bring economic aid to him and military support but its authoritarianism and its discrimination caused many dissatisfactions which, in 1996, inserted the entire country in a cycle of violences from where it did not leave any more.

    After inter-ethnic violences, the interventions of UNO, then the interventions of the French Army to save its mode with the barks, Patassé will try to approach Kadhafi, which will not be long in putting it in its turn in the French collimator.

    A bloody civil war bursts then between 2002 and 2003, offering the occasion to the general François Bozize to seize the capacity, by a putsch, on March 15th, 2003, with the discrete support of France and the support of Chadian militiamans.

    Two French fighter plans then flew over the capital and the presidential palace to film the positions of the loyal supporters to the profit of the putschist Bozize!
    On the other hand, president Patassé was supported by a Libyan unit. The seizure of power by Bozize does not put fine at violences, which are repeated in 2006-2007; obliging Paris to send its troops twice to save the president.

    Vexations in revolt, of crisis in civil war, the situation made only worsen, because the Elysium forever let this country only control itself.

    The French operations of destabilization were determining factors in the Central African crisis, which does not prevent president Holland from declaring with cynicism in 2012: “If we are present [in Central Africa], it is not to protect a mode, it is to protect our nationals and our interests.”

    This goal did not certainly change, in spite of the advertizing humanism posted at the time of the military intervention in progress.
    By traficotant the ballot boxes, and thanks to the French blessing, Bozize is thus re-elected in 2005 and 2011, in spite of the fact that it generated a civil war.
    But in 2012, the opposition, known as Séléka, an alliance of opponents and militia Christian and Moslem, had decided on in découdre with him.
    But they create chaos before installing Michel Djotodia with the capacity, in March 2013.

    Thousands of inhabitants fled while Séléka approached the capital, Bangui, in spite of the calls using Bozize, released by the Elysium which had another diary, after having maintained it during one decade. Incompetent to restore the order, new president, Michel Djotodia, is satisfied with calls to the assistance while the country enlise in a second civil war where the djihadists sow terror.

    France lets rot the situation while ensuring the protection brought closer to the putschist Michel Djotodia, by a score of mercenaries of the company: Roussel G-Safety.
    A scenario which recalls a little the coup d’etat to Mali, which preceded the occupation by the country by the terrorist hordes of Ansar Eddine, by Mujao and the MNLA, followed French interference.

    All the current crisis of Central Africa east thus resulting from this set of coups d’etat warped by France which gradually drove back the country with current chaos.
    The putsch of Bozize against Angel-Felix Patassé immediately profited in France, thanked by a contract for exploitation for uranium to the profit for the nuclear group Areva.

    Of an amount of 18 billion Francs CFA (27 million euros) and bearing on the layer of Bakouma, the contract was signed in 2008 per five years. Areva is also present at Niger where the kidnapping of the four French took place, a taking of hostage who was a determining factor in the French intervention in Mali, in January 2013, within the framework of the Serval operation.

    The contract of Areva in Niger reaches its term at the end of 2013, just like that of this same company in Central Africa.
    As by chance, the Serval intervention in Mali put Paris in strong position for a possible renewal of contract for Areva at Niger.

    Areva works the uranium natives of Niger mines since nearly one half-century, without the country really benefitting from these sales to the reduction. Its exploitation of the RCA resources does not make either leave this country the underdevelopment.
    Like if the two most invaluable resources, uranium and diamond, were cursed. When the contract of Areva will end, the disorders start in RCA and, as by chance, it is still France which runs to save the good Central African people threatened of civil war.

    To make profitable intervention R2P
    The Elysium has a rich past with the dictators of Bangui. One remembers “sponsorship”

    Valery Giscard d’Estaing with the crowning of Bokassa 1st in 1976. This sacring was lived by the Central African ones like a humiliation.

    Jacques Chirac, as for him, manufactured François Bozize, this soldier become Général at the 32 years age because it was the aide-de-camp of Bokassa.
    Supported by France since 2003, the General chair was maintained with the capacity although largely disputed by the democratic forces of the opposition.

    Started in December 2012, what is called second Central African civil war is a mixture of terrorist acts and banditism which caused the exile of thousands of people and caused the death of thousands of others within all the ethnos groups of this country.
    According to UNO, which gave the downstream to the recent French intervention, Central Africa was confronted at the risk of genocide.

    In any case, it was inserted in chaos and of denominational violences between Christian and Moslem armed groups.
    The population of the RCA is made up of 80% of Christians, 9,6% animists and 10,1% of Moslems, of which a minority of radicals wahhabites handled to harm and give pretexts to a “humane intervention” which was not long in being done.
    Moslems and Christians had lived in peace and harmony in Africa for several centuries, then suddenly they are put at entretuer!

    What did it occur?

    The Safety advice adopted, on August 14th, 2013, a declaration judging that the crisis in RCA was a “serious threat” for the area and ensured that its members were ready to consider “all the possible options to stabilize the country”. Worried by the support and the armament of the terrorists in Syria, the Occident was not in a hurry to intervene in Central Africa. Unless it was necessary that the situation degenerated to the maximum to go there as savers, as in Mali.

    Of were advantage of blood, destruction and of disorder necessary so that the “humane mission” Western is programmed, to be then filmed, televised and shown a profit politically?

    It will take place right the day before a top of the Elysium for peace and safety in Africa, which joined together forty African leaders… come to Paris to make allegiance or beg a final discharge for a new presidential mandate, n the other hand of sold off richnesses and in spite of the miseries generated in their own countries.

    Quite as francafric as its predecessors, if not more, François Holland still plays the large arm “to save” Africa, although he said beforehand that what counted for him it was the only protection of the citizens and the French interests.

    In Central Africa, there are not only uranium, gold and diamonds.
    There is also oil, hydroelectric energy and other potentially important but to date unexploited resources.
    However, in spite of the considerable richnesses of which it lays out, this country is one of poorest world. Since 2012, paludism made there rage with hundreds of a thousand of case, death rate is high and more than 1,6 million inhabitants would need an immediate humanitarian aid.

    In this agricultural country which has only 500 kilometers of road, of 25.000 kilometers tracks and one international airport, industry ensures hardly 15% of the GDP although in 2008,400 000 carats of diamonds were extracted from the layers of Carnot and Mouka-Ouadda.

    Indeed, diamond ensures the daily newspaper of 900.000 people and its real production is estimated with the double approximately, this sector being mined by smuggling.
    These appreciable resources do not prevent the country from collapsing under misery whereas its population hardly exceeds the 4,6 million inhabitants.

  3. Several African countries continue to pay a colonial tax in 2014

    You knew that many African countries continue to pay colonial tax in France since their independence until today!

    When Sékou Touré of Guinea decided into 1958 to leave the French colonial empire, and chose the independence of the country, the French colonial elite in Paris was so furious, and in a historical act of fury, destroyed all in the country which represented what they called the advantages of French colonization.
    Three thousand French left the country, by taking all their goods and destroying all that could not be moved: schools, cribs, buildings of the public administration were émietté; cars, books, drugs, instruments of the research institute, the tractors were crushed and sabotage; horses, cows in the farms were killed, and of food in the warehouses were burned or poison.
    The goal of this scandalous act was to send a clear message to all the other colonies that the consequences of the rejection of France would be very high.
    Slowly fear distributed hollow of the African elite, and none after the events Guinea forever found courage to follow the example of Sékou Touré, whose slogan was
    “We prefer freedom in poverty with opulence in slavery.”
    Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of the Republic of Togo, a small country of West Africa, found a solution of happy medium with the French.
    He does not want that its continuous country a French domination, consequently, he refused to sign the pact of colonization that De Gaulle proposed, but agreed to pay an annual debt of France for the so-called advantages which Togo obtained from French colonization. They are the only conditions for the French of not destroying the country before leaving. However, assembling it estimated by France was so large that the refunding of so-called “the colonial debt” was close to 40% of the budget of the country in 1963.
    The financial position of Togo lately independent was very unstable, of kind in order to leave the situation, Olympio decided to leave the money colonial Frenchwoman FCFA (frankly of the French colonies of Africa), and to deliver the currency of the country.
    January 13rd, 1963, three days afterwards, it started to print its country of its own currency. Olympio was killed by a ex French Légionnaire sergeant of the army called Etienne Gnassingbé who supposedly received a premium of 612 dollars of the local French embassy.
    The dream of Olympio was to build an independent and autonomous country.
    June 30th, 1962, Modiba Keita, the first president of the Republic of Mali, decided to withdraw colonial FCFA of French currency which was imposed on 12 lately independent African countries. For the president Malian, who leant more towards one socialist economy, was a trap, a burden for the development of the country.
    November 19th, 1968, like, Olympio, Keita will be victim of a coup d’etat carried out by another French legionary of the Foreign affairs ex, lieutenant Moussa Traoré.

    In fact, during this turbulent period of the combat of Africa to release itself from European colonization, France used many former foreign legionaries on several occasions to carry out blows against the elected presidents:
    • – To January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bedel Bokassa, a ex French legionary, carried a coup d’etat against David Dacko, the first president of the Central African Republic.
    • – On January 3rd, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first president of the Republic of the Upper Volta, called Burkina Faso today, was victim of a blow carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, a ex French legionary which fought with the French troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence.
    • – On October 26th, 1972 Mathieu Kérékou which was an security guard with president Hubert Maga, the first president of the Republic of Benign, carried a coup d’etat against the president, after it attended the French military academies of 1968 to 1970.

    In fact, during the 50 last years, a total of 67 coups d’etat, in 26 countries in Africa, 16 of these countries are French ex-colonies, which means that 61% of the coups d’etat were held in French-speaking Africa.
    Many Coups d’etat in Africa by country

    Country Ex French colonies Number of coup d’etat
    1 Togo 1
    2 Tunisia 1
    3 Ivory Coast 1
    4 Madagascar 1
    5 Rwanda 1
    6 Algeria 2
    7 Congo – DRC 2
    8 Mali 2
    10 Guinea Conakry 2
    SUB-TOTAL 1 13

    1 Congo 1
    2 Chad 1
    3 Burundi 1
    4 central Africa 1
    5 Niger 1
    6 Mauritania
    7 Burkina Faso
    The 8 Comoros

    Other African countries
    Country number of blow
    3
    3
    4
    4
    4
    4
    5
    5
    UNDER – TOTAL 2 32
    TOTAL (1 + 2) 45 TOTAL 22

    As these figures show it, France is completely desperate, but active to preserve a strong influence on its colonies.
    In March 2008, former French president Jacques Chirac stated:

    “Without Africa, France will slip downwards into the row of third power [of the world] “

    The predecessor of Jacques Chirac François Mitterrand already prophesied into 1957 that:

    “Without Africa, France will not have history with the 21e century”

    14 African countries are obliged to pay a debt in France
    14 African countries are obliged by France, via a colonial pact, to put 85% their reserves at the central bank of France under control of the French Minister for finances.
    In 2014, African Togo and 13 other countries must still pay the colonial debt in France. The African leaders who refuse are killed or victims of coup d’etat. Those which obey constant and are rewarded by France with sumptuous lifestyle, while their people endure misery and despair.
    It is a system denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to yield the colonial system puts approximately 500 billion dollars at the annual treasury of France.
    We often show the African leaders of corruption and to be used the interests of the Western nations for the place, but it ya a clear explanation of this behavior. They behave thus because they are afraid to be to kill or victim of a coup d’etat. They want a powerful nation to safeguard them in the event of aggression or of the difficulty. But, contrary to a protection friendly of the nation, the protection of the West is often offered in exchange of these leaders give up serving their own people or the interests of the nations.
    In 1958, frightened consequences of its independence choice of France, Léopold Sédar Senghor declared:
    “The choice of the Senegalese people, it is independence, they want that it takes place only in the friendship with France, not in litigation.”

    Here 11 main components of the pact of colonization which lasts since the years 1950:

    # 1. The colonial debt and advantages for France
    The “independent” countries lately must pay for the infrastructure built by France in the country during colonization.
    # 2. Automatic confiscation of the national reserves
    The African countries must deposit their national monetary reserves in France at the central bank.
    France recover national reserves of fourteen African countries since 1961: Benign, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Coast-D’ Ivory, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Guinea Equatoriale and Gabon.
    In short, more than 80% of monetary reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “accounts of operations” controlled by the French Treasury. Two banks CFA are African of name, but do not have clean monetary policies.
    The group is restricted with senior officials of the French Treasury who know the amounts appearing in the “accounts of operations” where these funds are invested; they are prohibited to reveal information at banks CFA or the central banks of the African States. ”, Dr. Gary K. Busch writes
    It is now estimated that France begs and receives nearly 500 billion to the African countries in its treasury, and prevents those which want to throw a light on this dark side of the old empire.
    The African countries do not have access to this money.
    France gives access to them only 15% of the money in a year given. If they need than that, they must borrow additional money fromhigh commercial rates.
    To make the things more tragic, France forces a ceiling on the amount of the money which the countries could borrow. The ceiling is fixed at 20% their public receipts of the previous year. If the countries need to borrow more than 20% their own money, France has a right to veto.
    Former French president Jacques Chirac recently spoke about the money of the African countries in the banks in France. Here it video where it is expressed on the French operating system. “We must be honest and recognize that most of the money in our banks come precisely from the exploitation from the African continent.”

    # 3. Right of first refusal on any rough resource or naturalness discovered in the country
    France has the right first to buy all the natural resources of the ground of its ex-colonies. It is only after France said: “I am not interested”, that the African countries are authorized to seek other partners.

    NR ° 4. Priority with the interests and the French companies in the government contracts
    In the attribution of the government contracts, the French companies must be considered initially, and only after these countries could seek elsewhere.
    In Ivory Coast, for example, the French companies have and control all the great public services – water, electricity, telephone, transport, ports and the large banks. Idem in the trade, construction and agriculture.

    # 5. Exclusive right provide military equipment and train the military officers of country
    Thanks to a sophisticated system of purses, subsidies, and the “agreements of defense” attached to the colonial pact, the Africans must send their senior officers of formation in France.
    The situation on the continent is now that France formed of the hundreds, even thousands of traitors. They are in day before when they are not necessary, and active where necessary of a coup d’etat or other ends!

    # 6. Right for France pre-to deploy troops and to intervene militarily in the country to defend its interests
    Under something called “Agreements of defense” attached to the colonial pact, France had the right to intervene militarily in the African countries, and also to station of the troops permanently in the military bases and installations in these countries, entirely managed by the French.
    French military bases in Africa

    When president Laurent Gbagbo of Ivory Coast tried to put an end to the French exploitation country, France organized a coup d’etat. During the long process to drive out Gbagbo of the capacity, combat helicopters and the special forces intervened directly in the conflict, shot at civilians and killed much.
    To add the insult to the insult, France estimates that the French community of businesses had lost several million dollars at the time of the rush to leave Abidjan in 2006 the French Army massacred 65 not armed civilians and wounded 1200 others.
    After France the blow succeeded, and transferred the capacity to Alassane Ouattara, France required the Ouattara government to pour an allowance at the French community of businesses for the losses during the civil war.
    Indeed, the Ouattara government their paid the double of what they said that they had lost while leaving.

    # 7. Obligation to make of French the official language of the country and the language for education
    Yes, Mister. You Owe French speak, the language of Molière!
    A French language and the organization of the diffusion of the culture was created called “Francophonie” with several satellites and the affiliated organizations controlled by the French Minister for the Foreign affairs.

    # 8. Obligation to use colonial France of money FCFA
    It is the true cash cow for France. During the introduction of the currency euro in Europe, other European countries discovered the French operating system. Many, in particular the Scandinavian countries, was dismayed and suggested in France getting rid of the system, but without success.

    # 9. Obligation to send the annual report to France, balances and holds.
    Without the report/ratio, not of money.
    At all events the secretary of the central banks of the ex-colonies, and the secretary of the biannual meeting of the Ministers for Finance of the ex-colonies is carried out by France.

    # 10. Renunciation to enter in military alliance with any other country, except authorization by France
    The majority of the countries have only military alliances with their ex-colonizers!

    # 11. Obligation to be combined with France in situation of war or world-wide crisis
    More than one million Africans soldiers fought for the defeat of the Nazism and Fascism during the second world war.
    Their contribution is often ignored or minimized, but when you think that took only 6 weeks for Germany to overcome France in 1940, France knows that the Africans could be useful for the fight for the “Size of France” in the future.

    Conclusion of the relation of France with Africa.
    Initially, France is seriously accro with the plundering and the exploitation of Africa since the time of slavery. Then, it ya this complete lack of the creativity and the imagination of the French elite to think beyond the past and of the tradition.
    Lastly, France has 2 institutions which completely cold in the past, are inhabited by paranoiacs and psychopathe “Civils servant Top” who spread the fear of the apocalypse if France were going to change, and whose ideological reference always comes from the romanticism of the 19th century: they are and the Budget Minister of Finance of France and the Foreign Minister of France.
    These two institutions are not only one threat for Africa, but the French themselves.
    The question which one can put the French colonial tax Until when??
    As historical comparison, France made pay in Haiti the equivalent of 21 billion dollars of 1804 to 1947 (nearly one century and half) for the losses caused with merchants of French slaves by the abolition of the slavery and the release of the Haitian slaves.
    source: Mawuna Notices KOUTONIN

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